Some Chinese discoveries that are famous all over the world

 China is famous all over the world

2021 was a difficult year for the whole world. This year too, the world has had to continue to fight the Kovid epidemic. Mankind's fight against the epidemic began in late 2019. In fact, the whole of 2020 has been spent on coping with the attack of Kovid. At this time the world economy has collapsed; Millions of human beings have been affected by different variants of the epidemic, millions of people have died.

China is the first victim of the epidemic. But with the concerted efforts of Chinese scientists, the people and the government, the country has been able to cope with the blow in an incredibly short time. China has been fighting hard against the epidemic since the first quarter of 2020; The Chinese people have had to endure tough lockdowns, adhere to strict anti-epidemic restrictions. But they got the result hand in hand. In just a few months, a country of 1.4 billion people came to control the epidemic in China. So far, almost two and a half years after the outbreak of the epidemic, the number of Kovid infections in China has not exceeded one million; The number of dead did not exceed the quota of 5 thousand!

History of China

In ancient times, China was the dominant civilization in East Asia. Other civilizations in the region, such as the Japanese, Koreans, Tibetans, and Vietnamese, were all influenced by China. They adopted and followed Chinese art, food, material culture, philosophy, government, technology, and writing. For many centuries, especially from the 8th century to the 14th century, China was the most advanced civilization in the world. Paper, printing presses, gunpowder, porcelain, silk and directional compasses were all first invented in China and then spread to other parts of the world. Its use can be seen anywhere in the world.

When European powers arrived in East Asia, China's political power was threatened. Macau, a small administrative region on China's southeast coast, came under Portuguese control in the mid-18th century, and nearby Hong Kong came under British control in the 1840s. In the 19th century, the Qing Dynasty, the last dynasty in China, was weakened by internal revolutions and foreign intervention. The monarchy was finally overthrown by Chinese nationalists in 1911. Over the next several decades, infighting between several military leaders, the Japanese invasion, and the civil war between the communist and Kuomintang nationalist governments tore the country apart. Earlier, in 1928, the nationalists established the Republic of China.

In 1949, the Chinese Communist Party won the Civil War and established the People's Republic of China on mainland China. The Kuomintang fled to the island province of Taiwan and formed a nationalist government there. Although the nationalist government controlled Taiwan and some of the surrounding islands, it was initially recognized as the de facto government of the whole of China. At present, however, most countries consider the government of the People's Republic of China on the mainland to be the real government of China.

After coming to power in 1949, the Chinese Communist government brought agriculture and industry under state planning. Since the late 1970s, however, the government has pursued economic reforms to increase foreign investment. Further reforms in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in the Chinese economy growing at a rate of 10% per year from 1980 to 1995. As a result, at the beginning of the 21st century, the Chinese economy became one of the largest in the world.

China regained control of Hong Kong from Britain in 1997, but the region retained a significant amount of autonomy. In the late 1970's, Portugal recognized Macao as an administrative territory of China, and ceded the territory to China in 1999; Macau was also given the status of a special autonomous region.

Acupuncture, a type of medical procedure


Acupuncture is a type of Chinese medicine used to treat pain and disease, which many may have heard of. During this method of treatment, the needle is inserted into different parts of the body.

Although medicine was first discovered in China, it was not initially recognized as a science, but in 2003, the World Health Organization recognized acupuncture.


Handguns from the Yuan Dynasty in the thirteenth century.

The Chinese alchemists invented gunpowder in search of immortality. The nitrate level of gunpowder is stated to be between 27% and 50% in the book written by Zheng Gangliang and Yang Weidi in 1044 during the reign of the Song Dynasty. By the end of the twelfth century, the amount of nitrate used by the Chinese to make gunpowder could explode through metal containers made of cast iron.

In 1260, a huge gunpowder arsenal accidentally caught fire in Weiyang. This led to a massive explosion, and a week later a Chinese inspector visited the scene and found that 100 guards had been killed.

In the 14th century, when Xiao Yu wrote Huolongjing's book on the use of gunpowder in the military, the Chinese corrected the explosive levels of gunpowder and were able to fix the exact level of nitrate in gunpowder. They came up with six different formulas. At that time the Chinese learned to make round shots to give nitrate rich gunpowder.

Earthquake detectors.


Another invention of the Han dynasty was the seismoscope or seismograph. This seismograph could detect earthquakes and their source or direction, however, it was not yet able to detect the magnitude of an earthquake. This Chinese discovery was later modified to measure the largest earthquakes in history.By this, earthquakes are known all over the world


The first mention of the use of a magnetic device as a "guide" is found in a text of the Song Dynasty from 1040-1044. There is a reference to a "south-facing fish" made of iron that floats south in a bowl of water. The device has been described as a means of understanding the path "at night". However, the first submerged needle-magnet compass is mentioned in a text written by Shen Kuo in 108.

According to Nidhem, the Chinese in the Song Dynasty and later in the Yuan Dynasty used dry compasses, although they were not as widely used in Chinese water compasses.

The dry compasses used in China were basically dry suspension compasses. The device is made by cutting a wooden frame in the shape of a tortoise, hanging it upside down with a plank, pasting the sandstone with wax and inserting a needle towards its tail. No matter how much the instrument is rotated, the needle will always be fixed facing north. The compass card in a box frame made by Europeans in the 14th century was adopted by the Chinese in the 18th century when Japanese sailors brought it to China (they got it from the Europeans). However, its self-made dry suspension was quite common in China until the 18th century.

The 2008 Beijing Olympics

The dancing box represents a replaceable printing block at the opening ceremony of the 2006 Olympics.

The 2008 Summer Olympics were one of the four major innovation events. Gunpowder is presented by drawing on a large piece of paper and dancing with ink, a printing press through a dancing printing block, a replica of a traditional compass, and spectacular fireworks. According to a survey by the Beijing Social Facts and Public Opinion Survey, the four grand openings were the most touching part of the opening ceremony for Beijing residents.

History of printing

The printing of books with pieces of wood was invented in China some time before the culture of printing the world's first printed book (Diamond Sutra) was created in that year. In charge of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Hyatt mayor said: "It was the Chinese who actually invented the means of communication which was supposed to be the predominant form of our time." Although Western printing presses were introduced in China in the 16th century, they did not become popular until the 19th century. China and Korea are among the last countries to adopt the device.

Excellent cover of the Diamond Sutra during the Tang Dynasty. (British Museum)

Woodworking in textiles and writing was first found in the 220's, which was followed in other cultures over the centuries. It was introduced to Europe through the Islamic world in the 14th century or earlier, and in the 14th century it was used on traditional master prints and paper for printing cards.

Printing technology was further developed in northern China in the eleventh century. Because the writings of Shen Kuo (1031-1095), a scientist and government official in the Song Dynasty, show that the famous artist B. Sheng (990-1051) made a replacement device for printing with ceramics at that time. Then there was Wang Chen (official). FL. 1290-1333) who invented the inscription on wood which later led to the development of replaceable metal printing in Korea (1382-137). Although this method is very slow for printing one or a few books, it is effective and fast for making thousands of books. Indeed, there were many cities in China where local wealthy families or large private enterprises used metal and wood replaceable printing. In the eighteenth century the court of the King's Empire funded a large printing project using replaceable wood prints. Replacing the Western printing method, the wood replacement printing method is still used in many isolated communities in China.

The Great Wall

The Great Wall of China (traditional Chinese: simplified Chinese: built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were built from as early as the 7th century BC,with selective stretches later joined together by Qin Shi Huang , the first emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains.Later on, many successive dynasties built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The best-known sections of the wall were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration.Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watchtowers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

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