Computer History and Legends

 Computer History and Legends

History of computers

The period from the invention of the computer to this period can be divided into three periods. Namely: (a) Ancient Age, (b) Middle Age and (c) Present or Modern Age.

We all live in the modern age. The computer, the most necessary device of this era, did not get its modern form in a day. For this, experts have to work hard for a long time. Everyone is surely interested to know where and how this machine called computer came from, and it is very important to know about it.

 The first generation of digital computers was considered from 1946 to 1958.

In 1946, two professors at the University of Pennsylvania built a computer called ENIAC, but the first computer with memory was invented in 1949, called EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer). The Remington Rand Company developed the UNIVAC-1 computer in 1951, which featured the use of a vacuum tube. In 1954, the popular IBM-650 computer was created.

ancient era

The computer was born about a few thousand years ago. A type of calculating device called Abacus was used for calculation in China around 3000 BC. And through this Abacus machine, various types of calculations were done in ancient times. Again, if the computer is considered as a large-scale calculation machine for calculation work in this Abacus machine, then it cannot be neglected to say that the beginning of the first thinking of the computer is from this Abacus-machine.

(2) Middle Ages

The Middle Ages were essentially a period of great importance for the invention of computers. At this time, all the important devices of the computer were invented and the production process of the computer was accelerated. All the instruments invented in the Middle Ages are discussed in relation to:-


Thousands of years have passed since the invention of the Abacus. With the progress of human civilization, all the ways of thinking, knowledge and knowledge of people also become large and advanced.


Pascal, the first mechanical calculator, was created in 1645 AD. Sir Blaise Pascal created it. This mechanical device was named Pascaline after the scientist Pascal. And the operation of the Pascaline instrument is basically the same as that of the Abacus instrument. The Abacus machine was the toothed wheel or gear used in Pascal's machine on the other side of the disc.

Stepped Reckoner

Around 1694, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz developed a slightly improved version of the Pascaline instrument, naming it the Stepped Reckoner. Then, in the middle of 1820, Thomas de Comer improved the stepped reckoner. By that time people have also become quite modern. Their search for new technologies continues. And as a result of this, a revolution took place in 1821.

Difference Engine to Analytical Engine

Charles Babbage invented a machine called the difference engine to make calculations easier. Later this calculating machine was further modernized and named Analytical Engine.

Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine has played an important role in the performance of many of the components that can be seen or exist in today's modern computers. So for his outstanding contribution, Charles Babbage is called the father of computers.

tabulating machine

Dr. Herman Hollorith combined the tabulator instrument with Charles Babbage's analytical instrument in 1890. One of the features of this machine is that it can use paper punch cards, and Dr. Harman's invention tabulator can punch holes in paper punch cards. As a result, the tabulator device became very popular. Dr. Herman's success inspired him a lot. Dr. Herman started his own Tabulating Machine Company as a result of this success. The Tabulating Machine Company later became known as IBM, the largest computer company in the world.

(3) Modern era


Another fifty years passed after Dr. Herman's invention of the tabulator. During this long time, no significant changes were observed in the computer except minor changes. In early 1943, two talented engineers named John Mosley and Presper Eckert from the University of Pennsylvania started the first generation of digital computers. By working tirelessly, in the middle of 1946, they created the first electronic digital computer. His name was Eniac.


At the end of 1946, a talented scientist named Sir Howard Aikin of Harvard University made an electronics computer that was smaller and less powerful than Eniac. Which is named Markwan.


At the end of 1948, three talented American scientists named Bardin, Bratton and Shockley discovered the transistor. As a result, a new revolution began on the computer horizon. The transistor computer replaced the bulb-based Eniac and Markone computers. Edsack made in 1949 is notable among the computers of this period.

Univac One

In 1951, an American company named Remington Rand made a computer named Univac One. This computer became very popular for commercial data processing work.

silicon chip

Sir Jack Kilby came to secondary school in 1958 and invented the silicon chip. And many transistors are placed on a small piece of silicon chip. A very narrow path, called a circuit, is made to establish communication between all these transistors. And the work of adding this circuit is called integrator circuit or IC. Manufacturers are encouraged to build computers with RIC or integrator circuits. Later there were many improvements in the integrated circuit. By 1971, many ICs could be mounted on tiny silicon chips. And the inserted chip is named microprocessor. Today's modern computers are largely dependent on these microprocessors.

Types of Computers

Computers are classified according to their structure and features. 3 types of computers. Namely:-

(1) Analog Computer

(2) Digital computer

(3) Hybrid computer


1. Analog Computer: Analog Computer (Analog Computer) is a type of computer through which the physical and moving measurement model of electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic is formed. Analog computers deal with numbers that directly represent or compare to measurable quantities. For example, voltage or rotation etc. Examples of analog computers are speed meters, temperature meters, fuel meters etc. in cars.


2. Digital Computer: All modern computers are digital computers. A digital computer performs all operations by using binary numbers representing the presence of electrical voltage as 1 and its absence as 0. Once the digital computer only did addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, but today it does a lot of complex data processing. There are classifications of digital computers based on size and usage.

4 types of digital computer. Namely:-

Super computer

Mainframe computer

Mini computer

Micro computer

3. Hybrid Computer: A hybrid computer is a special computer made up of analog and digital computers. Hybrid computers are used for scientific research work. This computer collects data in analog mode and displays its results in digital mode. Meteorological office uses hybrid computer to measure air pressure, temperature etc. in analog mode and then calculate it in digital mode to broadcast weather news.

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