What is motherboard? What is its function and how many parts does it have?


What is motherboard? What is its function and how many parts does it have?

Today we will know about computer motherboard. The word motherboard can mean one thing, that is this board is considered as the mother or main part of the computer. Because without the motherboard, the computer is completely immobile. The motherboard plays the most important role in the structural structure of a computer.

In the computer, all the parts including RAM, hard disk are basically connected to the motherboard. The computer motherboard is a part that connects all the components together. For this reason, it can also be considered as the backbone of the computer.

What is motherboard?

Motherboard is the main circuit board which is considered as the home base of all computer hardware including CPU, storage device, graphics card, sound card. Its main function is to establish electronic communication between various components.

And a good motherboard, Real Time does this connection very well. If any part of the motherboard is disrupted, your computer will stop working properly. Because this is the base of the whole computer.

Its functions are as follows:

1: It is a component hub – all kinds of external hardware are connected here, like RAM, hard disk, CD drive etc. For this reason it is called Component Hub.

2. Power distribution – Power comes from the power supply to the motherboard, and the motherboard distributes it properly to the various hardware.

3: Various Slots – There are many slots here, so that we can install various devices or interfaces. According to our needs, various devices need to be installed in the computer at various times. The motherboard has all the slots.

4: BIOS – Motherboard contains ROM or BIOS, which is very important for booting our computer.

In addition, the motherboard works in many more detailed and precise ways.

How many types of motherboards and what are they?

Motherboard is basically divided into 5 types depending on its structure and function. Now we will know here what those types are

1. Standard ATX Motherboard – Standard ATX Motherboard

2. Micro ATX Motherboard – Micro ATX Motherboard

3. Mini ATX Motherboard – Mini ATX Motherboard

4. Nano ITX Motherboard – Nano ITX Motherboard

5. Pico ITX Motherboard – Pico ITX Motherboard

Description of different parts of motherboard

Here we will talk about some of the main parts of the motherboard, without which a PC will become completely unusable. These parts are integrated with the motherboard or can be purchased externally. So let's know about the different parts of the motherboard:

1. CPU – Central Processing Unit

CPU or Central Processing Unit is a micro-processor or processor known as the brain of the computer. It basically does all the logical calculations of the computer like fetching, decoding or executing programs. Its processor chip type depends on the brand and type of motherboard you buy. Different types of motherboards have different layouts and socket locations.

2. RAM – Random Access Memory

RAM or Random Access Memory is a dynamic memory of the computer that stores our work temporarily and improves the using experience by increasing the speed of work. This is basically the main memory of the computer where the running programs keep their data stored and activated.

When the computer is turned off once, all data in the RAM is erased and it starts working again. For this reason it is also called volatile memory.

  • BIOS
  • Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM
  • Cache Memory
  • Expansion Bus

1) SIMOS and BIOS:

Bios (BIOS or Basic Input Output System) is where all the information and settings of the motherboard are stored. It can be updated, changed.

CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-Conductor) is a type of battery system to keep all data intact when the entire system is turned off. After a failed update or if you want to increase your RAM capacity, the SIMOS battery can be removed to reset the BIOS.

2) Input/Output Port:

  • Microphone/speaker port
  • Monitor – VGA, HDMI port
  • Ethernet cable port
  • USB port
  • Some modern motherboards have a Type-C port

3) Storage device connector:

  • Here is the hard disk/ssd.
  • The integrated drive electronics is the 40 pin male connector where the HDD is attached.
  • The Serial Advanced Technology attachment is a 7-pin connector that holds the SSD. This is the latest technology and works faster.

4) Power connector:

ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) has a 20-24 pin female connector. Through this the power is connected to the motherboard and it draws the necessary power directly from the power supply.

5) Front I/O Connector:

This is where you connect the power switch, LED power indicator, reset switch, and HDD LED cables. The front audio port and front USB are also connected here.

6) CPU Socket:

This is where your CPU (Processor) is installed. This is where data processing and transfer takes place. Your CPU is one of the most important parts of your computer, so you often choose your motherboard based on compatibility with the CPU you want to use. The CPU needs to be 100% compatible with the motherboard socket to work.

7) Extended Card Slot:

Expansion card slots are used when you add extra things like a video card, network card, audio card, or PCI SSD. The slots are located on the bottom half of the motherboard below the CPU socket.

Video Card Slot:

The video card slot allows you to install a dedicated GPU to boost your computer's graphical performance, which can deliver better graphical performance than AMD APUs or Intel CPUs.

Network Card Slot:

The network card slot is where you put the network interface card (NIC). It allows you to connect to other computer networks via LAN or Internet. It has an RJ-45 port on the back.

Audio Card Slot:

This is where audio cards fit in. They convert electrical signals into audio signals that we can hear. Different types of ports are available on the back depending on the type of audio.

8) RAM (memory) slot:

The RAM, or random access memory, slots are one of the most important parts of the motherboard. The RAM slots hold the RAM modules. There are SIM slots (single in-line memory modules) that only support a 32-bit bus, and there are DIMM slots (dual in-line memory modules) that simultaneously support a 64-bit bus.

These are the main components that reside on the motherboard. Also other things that can be seen are-

Northbridge and Southbridge Chip:

The Northbridge chip is connected directly to the CPU and manages fast communication between the CPU and performance-sensitive components such as the graphics card and system memory.

It is also connected to the Southbridge chip which also acts as a communication hub. However, the Southbridge communicates with less performance-sensitive components such as USB ports, storage devices, onboard networks, and audio chips.

ROM Chip:

ROM or Read Only Memory is where the information needed to start the computer is stored. Editing the content of Rome is very difficult.

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